November 7, 2019
With the Yellowstone National Park fishing season now closed, the Madison below Quake Lake will be the best local option going forward. There are still a few Baetis mayflies hatching in the wade stretch as well as some midges, so if you are willing to search them out, you can still find some rising trout here in the afternoon hours. Try #24 Baetis Sparkle Duns, #20-24 Improved Zelon Midges or #20-22 Scotty's Midges if you do run into fish feeding on top. Nymphing continues to produce plenty of fish in this area as well, so be sure to try a #10 black Rubberlegs or #14 Euro Stone with a #18 Radiation Baetis, Half Pint, or brown or crystal $3 Dip as a dropper and go catch some trout!
The Gallatin can provide some good nymphing this time of year, particularly in the canyon stretch below Big Sky. Concentrate on the slower, deeper runs and try #10 black Rubberlegs, #14 Euro Stone, #16 Psycho Prince, #16-18 crystal Serendipity, and #20 Micro Madison Midge.
The Madison between the lakes continues to fish well also. Try nymphing a #6 Hungarian Prince along with a #16 Shop Vac, #16 Radiation Baetis, #18 Half Pint, or #18 Micro Madison Baetis nymph. If you are looking for a really big brown, this is a great spot to strip or dead drift a Wounded Sculpin or copper Zonker as well.
Please keep in mind that no matter where you fish this time of year, brown trout will be actively spawning over the next few weeks. Please watch out for redds and steer clear of any you may see so that we can ensure a successful spawn and healthy future fish populations.
October 31, 2019
It's hard to believe that there are only three more days left to fish Yellowstone Park in the 2019 season and despite the cold weather the fishing on the Madison in the park has very pretty good over the past week. There are fish throughout the system and those who have been brave enough to venture out into the cold have been rewarded for their efforts. Swinging, stripping and nymphing have all been successful methods to fish this stretch of water, so pick your poison and get out there one last time! Here's a list of a few flies that have been working as of late. For nymphs, Rubberlegs in black or brown #8, #14 $3 Dips, #14 Pheasant Tail Prince, or #18 Micro Madison Baetis and #16 Guide Dip. If you're swinging orange and purple Shakey Beeleys, Grouse & Pink soft hackles, Full Dressed Reds, and Blew on Blues. If you're stripping streamers try a Blacklight Sparkle Minnow, Baker's Hole Bugger, Zonker, or Prospector.
The Baetis have dwindled somewhat on the Firehole but you can still find rising fish here and there. The best method as of late has been to swing soft hackles and #16 Starling & Peacock, #14 Partridge & Orange and #16 Soft Hackle Pheasant Tails have worked well over the past week. For dries, have #20 Zebra and Baetis Klinkhammers and #20-22 Scotty's Midges.
The Gibbon is a good choice for the last few days of the season and heading up toward the falls is always a good idea this late in the game. Black or brown Rubberlegs in #8-10, #14 $3 Dips, #16-14 Guide Dips, pink San Juans and #16 red Copper Johns have been great nymphs to use. For streamers have a black Prospector, Blacklight Sparkle Minnow and a copper Zonker with you.
The Madison between the lakes has been good and there has been an abundance of fish in this little stretch of water. Nymphing has been the best method here and you'll want to try #10 black or brown Rubberlegs, #16 red Copper John, #14-16 Two-Bit Hooker, #14-16 $3 Dips. If the weather warms up a bit you can still find some rising fish at the bottom end of this stretch as it flows into Quake Lake and if you head down make sure you have #20 Klinkhammer Baetis, #20 Sprout Baetis and a #20 Zelon Midge with you.
October 24, 2019
Fishing has improved some over the past week on the Madison in the park. Anglers have reported better numbers of fish the last few days particularly in the lower end of the river, indicating that a new wave of fish has arrived from the lake, helping to increase the action. Nymphing will still be the most productive method, but anglers swinging flies and stripping streamers have seen better activity of late as well. Try nymphing with a black Rubberlegs followed by a brown #14 $3 Dip, #14 Pheasant Tail Prince, or #18 Micro Madison Baetis nymph. For swinging, try both orange and purple Shakey Beeleys, Grouse & Pink soft hackles, Full Dressed Reds, and Blew on Blues. For streamers, we recommend Soft Hackle Streamers, Baker's Hole Buggers, Zonkers, and Prospectors.
The Firehole continues to fish as well as it has all fall. Baetis mayflies are still emerging in the afternoons, and swinging soft hackles will produce plenty of fish throughout the day. Make sure to have some #20-22 Klinkhammer Baetis and #20 Almost There Baetis, as well as plenty of #18-20 Baetis Soft Hackles, #16 Pheasant Tail Soft Hackles and #14 Partridge & Peacock. Also, try stripping an olive or natural Super Squirrel here for some aggressive grabs, especially on cloudier days.
The Madison below Quake has still seen some emerging Baetis mayflies and midges in the afternoons, and nymph fishing will continue to put fish in the net also. Bring some #20 Zebra and Baetis Klinkhammers and #20-22 Scotty's Midges for dry fly fishing here, and for nymphs, go small with #18 Micro Madison Baetis, #16-18 Radiation Baetis, #18 Half Pints and #18 brown or crystal $3 Serendipities.
Now is a great time of year to explore the Gibbon River below the falls. Some of those big runners have certainly made their way up there by now, and the smaller resident fish usually provide plenty of entertainment as well. The big fish will be spread out and you'll want to cover some water to find them, but it is very rewarding to hook into one of those big fish in such a small river. We like either nymphing with a Rubberlegs stonefly trailing a #14 brown $3 Dip or Prince Nymph, or working all the pockets with a streamer such as a copper or white Zonker, black or olive/white Prospector, or Light Spruce.
The Madison between the lakes is also well worth fishing right now. Big browns from Quake Lake have started their fall migration here, too, with plenty of nice rainbows along for the ride. Try a #10 black Rubberlegs with a #16 red Copper John, Two-Bit Hooker, or #18 Split-Case Baetis as a dropper, or strip some streamers through any likely holding water. We like olive or black Sculpzillas, sculpin Sparkle Minnows and tan McCune's Sculpins here. Also be sure to keep an eye out for fish rising to Baetis, especially closer to the mouth of Quake Lake. For those fish, use a #20 Klinkhammer Baetis with a #20 Pheasant Tail for a dropper.
October 17, 2019
As mentioned earlier, the Madison in the park has been a bit tough over the past week and I suspect it will fish better with the clouds, snow and rain that are moving in late this afternoon. The best bet on this stretch of river has been to nymph. For your lead flies I would dead drift a #8 Rubberlegs in brown or coffee color, a white Zonker, Hungarian Prince or a Light or Dark Spruce and drop off a #16 Guide Serendipity, #16 Nitro Nymph, #18 Micro Madison Baetis, #16 red Copper John or a #18 Flashback Pheasant Tail. One of our local anglers was dead drifting the Light Spruce and dropped off a Guide Dip yesterday and caught eight nice run-up fish using this method, so give it a shot.
If you head to the Gallatin be sure to check the water clarity before going, as it has been a bit off color with some snowmelt out of the Taylor's Fork. The water will be clear above the Taylor's Fork, though, so you should always have that to fall back on. With the cooler weather moving in, the clarity shouldn't be an issue after today. The water below Big Sky will typically fish the best this time of year and the fish will most likely be holding in the slower water. Keep an eye out for Baetis and midges from noon to 4:00pm and carry with you #20 Baetis Sparkle Duns and #20-22 Zelon Midges for any risers you may encounter. For nymphs, try #16 Lightning Bugs, #18-20 Pheasant Tails, #18-20 Zebra Midges and #10-12 black Rubberlegs. If you want to throw a streamer, olive Sculpzillas and olive Woolly Buggers are a great choice.
The Firehole has remained one of the most consistent rivers inside the park and we have had some good dry fly action with Baetis and midges here. Have with you Baetis Sparkle Duns #20-22 and Zelon Midges #20-22. The soft hackle fishing has been the most productive with #18-20 Baetis Soft Hackles, #14-16 Tungsten P.T. Soft Hackles, Partridge & Orange soft hackles and Partridge & Peacock soft hackles.
There have not been many anglers over in the northeast corner of the park, but the few that have made their way over that direction have had good fishing on the Lamar and Soda Butte. The drakes have seemed to come to an end but there has still been a good number of Baetis in the afternoons between 12:00-4:00pm. If you're driving over this direction from the west gate, keep in mind that the road over Dunraven Pass is closed, so you'll have to go through Mammoth. Try #20-22 Baetis Sparkle Duns, #18-20 Zebra Midges, San Juans and an olive Sculpzilla.
The Madison below Quake Lake has fished well over the past week, and the float and wade sections have both been productive. The Baetis and midge activity has been well worth making your way down here and the wade section will be the best area to find the most rising fish. As with many rivers in the area expect the bugs to come off between 11:00 and 4:00pm. Have with you #20-24 Baetis Sparkle Duns and #20-22 Zelon Midges. I like fishing a #16 Purple or Adams Cripple with either a #18-20 Zebra Midge or #18 Two-Bit Hooker as a dropper. If you're nymphing, try #8-10 Rubberlegs, San Juans, #16-18 Crystal Dips, #16 Guide Dips and a #18 Radiation Baetis.
October 10, 2019
The Madison below Quake Lake has been fishing well over the past week and the nymph fishing as well as the dry fly fishing has been outstanding. The cloudy, snowy days have brought some great emergences of Baetis and if the wind stays at bay you can expect to find fish rising well. The hatch may not get going until 3:00pm or even a little later on these cold days, so try to stick around through the afternoon so you don't miss it. Be sure to have #20 Baetis Sparkle Duns, Baetis Foam Emergers and a Black Wing Baetis Cripple with you when these little mayflies show up. For nymphs, have #8-10 Rubberlegs in either coffee or black, along with #16-18 Crystal Dips, #16-18 Micro Mayflies, #18-20 Zebra Midges or Half Pints and #18 Radiation Baetis. If you're a streamer junkie, Aaron's Prospector and Super Squirrel are great go-to patterns.
Over the past week we have had some mixed reports on the Madison in the Park, and the best reports have come from the anglers who have been nymphing. Hungarian Princes in #6 have been the key here and dropping off a #14 guide dip, #14-16 Crystal Dip or a San Juan Worm has taken several fish over the past week. While swinging flies hasn't been as productive as nymphing, our guides have had some success with Goblins, Montana Intruders, Soft Hackle Streamers in Yellow/Brown & Olive/Black. Look for the bite to continue to improve as we move further into the month as more and more fish will move into the river each day.
The Firehole has fished well and the weather we've had the last couple of days is perfect for this river. We've seen good emergences of Baetis and the fish have been up and looking for them. The Baetis have been small and #22 Klinkhammers are what you'll want to have. I like to also carry #20-22 Black Wing Baetis Cripples for when the light conditions get a little tough. For soft hackles, have #20-22 Baetis Soft Hackles, #16 Pheasant Tail Soft Hackles, #14 March Brown Spiders and a #14 Gyspy.
The Lamar and Soda Butte have also fished well lately. Baetis and a few Drake Mackerels have brought fish to the surface in the afternoons, and we've even heard a few reports of fish still taking beetles and hoppers despite the recent cold weather.
The Gibbon River is often overlooked and can produce great result for those who choose not to ignore it. Nymphing #6 Hungarian Princes, #8-10 Rubberlegs, #16-18 Crystal Dips and #14 Guide Dips are great choices here. Don't overlook water as you fish the Gibbon, many of these fish will hide in the most unlikely areas.
One last river to consider is the Gardner below the Mammoth-Tower Bridge and downstream to its junction with the Yellowstone River. There is a strong number of good brown trout up from the Yellowstone in the lower Gardner at this time. Nymphing is your best bet with Princes and Rubberleg stones.
October 3, 2019
The Madison in the Park continues to see more and more fish in the system with each passing day, and we are at the point where you can pick your poison as to what method of fishing you prefer, either dead drift, strip or swing. All of these methods have worked over the past week. If you're swinging flies the Goblin, Montana Intruder, Shakey Beeley, Blew on Blue and the Full Dressed Red have all been good choices. For stripping flies the Super Squirrel in orange, Goblin, Bakers Hole Bugger and Sheila's Sculpin have worked well. Nymphing has been the most productive with Pat's Rubberlegs #8, Guide Dips #14-16, Perdigon Nymphs #16, Radiation Baetis #18, and Micro Mayflies #16-18. Also in certain areas of the Madison, be on the lookout for Baetis on the surface and be prepared with a Baetis Black Wing Cripple or Klinkhammer #20-22.
The Firehole has been a great option lately. With the cooler weather we haven't seen as many White Millers out over the past few days but the Baetis have emerged in good numbers during the overcast days. The sun should pop back out over the next few days, though, so don't put those White Millers away just yet! The Baetis have been small so have Baetis Sparkle Duns in #22-24 with you. As you may have guessed, swinging flies has been the most productive here. Size 16 Micro Beeleys, #14-16 Pheasant Tail Soft Hackles and #14 Peacock & Partridge soft hackles will work well.
The Gibbon River is always a good place to give a shot this time of year and often times you can escape some of the crowds. Swinging and nymphing can be a ton of fun in this little river and can produce some very surprising results. Try #8-10 Rubberlegs, #16 Lightning Bugs in silver, #18 Radiation Baetis, and #16-18 Micro Mayflies for nymphing and Shakey Beeleys, Partridge & Ice in orange and Full Dressed Reds for swinging. If you're in the stripping mood you can't beat an orange Super Squirrel.
Over in the northeast corner, the water levels on Soda Butte and Lamar have settled and the fishing should be good now. Drake Mackerels and Baetis will most likely show up late in the day between 2:00pm and 4:00pm. Have with you some #12 Drake Mackerel Sparkle Duns, #12 Drake Mac Emergers and Baetis Black Wing Cripples and Klinkhammers in #22. If for some reason the water gets a little murky, you can always fall back on Slough Creek which typically remains clear even after a heavy rain. Expect to have the same bugs as the Lamar and Soda Butte but also don't be afraid to throw a Longhorn Beetle on sunny days.
The Madison below Quake Lake has been fishing well and this is a great time to see pods of fish rising to Baetis mayflies. This activity can be isolated, so make sure you hit a few different slicks and spend some time observing each to find the pods of risers. The Baetis have been emerging later in the day between 1:00 and 4:00pm. The nymphing has remained solid with smaller nymphs such as #18 Micro Mayflies, #16-18 Radiation Baetis, #18-20 JuJu Baetis, #18 $3 Dips and black #18-20 Zebra Midges. This may sound a bit crazy but if you get a sunny day down here don't be afraid to throw a hopper pattern late in the afternoon! The way this river has fished this year you just never know!
September 26, 2019
Better numbers of fall run browns and rainbows have been making their way into the Madison in the Park this past week, and it sounds like fishing for these fish has been steadily improving. The weather forecast calls for more wet and cold over the next few days, which should continue to push more fish into the river as well. Soft hackles like the Shakey Beeley, Blew on Blue, Baker's Hole Soft Hackle, and September Song have been effective on the swing, as have streamers like the Baker's Hole Bugger, Super Squirrel, Prospector, and Zonker. For nymphs, try a black #8-10 Rubberlegs with a #16 $3 Dip, #18 Radiation Baetis, or #16-18 Micro Mayfly as a trailer.
The Firehole River continues to fish well despite variable weather conditions over the last week. Strong Baetis mayfly hatches have brought fish to the surface on cloudier days, while a combination of Baetis and White Miller caddis has produced rising fish on the sunnier days as well. Look for any dry fly fishing to occur in the afternoons now as cold nights will keep the bugs dormant until the water warms up later in the day. Swinging soft hackles has continued to produce excellent results when fish are not rising. Make sure to have some #16 White Miller Razor Caddis and #20-22 Baetis Sparkle Duns, Razor Mayflies, and Black Wing Cripples for dry flies, and some #14-16 Pheasant Tail Soft Hackles, #14 Partridge & Orange soft hackles, and #16 Micro Beeleys for swinging.
The Madison River below Quake has fished well lately, particularly with small nymphs. Baetis nymphs like #18 Micro Mayflies, Radiation Baetis, and JuJu Baetis will produce well here, as will midge patterns such as #16-18 $3 Dips, Half Pints, and Zebra Midges. Some Baetis and midges have been hatching in the afternoons as well, mainly between the hours of 1:00 and 5:00pm. If you are willing to walk and look a bit, you should run into some risers here and there. Try #20-24 Baetis Sparkle Duns, #20-22 Black Wing Baetis Cripples, and #20 Baetis Razor Mayflies, as well as #20-24 Improve Zelon Midges.
The Lamar, Slough, and Soda Butte have had a very up and down week, as rain and snow last weekend caused water levels to rise dramatically in both the Lamar and Soda. Levels have dropped some in the last day or so, but more moisture is on the way in the next few days, so be sure to check on the flows before heading over. If you do make it here when the water is clear, be prepared with #12 Drake Mackerel Sparkle Duns and #22 Baetis Sparkle Duns.
September 19, 2019
The Madison below Quake Lake has fished well over the past week, and sure enough when the sun came out these last few days, the fish were once again on the terrestrials! We didn't have too many days of sun last week but be prepared with a few hoppers in your box if you are headed to the Madison when sun is in the forecast later in the week. The weather forecast looks a bit dismal for this coming weekend, though, so make sure you have Baetis dries along with some nymph patterns. Bucky's Upright Baetis #20 is always a good choice along with a few Baetis Soft Hackles to drop off the back. As for nymphs, Pat's Rubberlegs #8-10 have been working well along with Radiation Baetis #18-20, $3 Dips #16-18, Perdigon Nymphs in black and purple #18 and Soft Hackle Perdigons #16. The morning fishing has been just a little slow so if you're down there let the water warm up before you get out on the river.
The Gallatin in the park has been a little frustrating for some over the past week. Remember the water is very cold in this section and needs time to warm up before the fishing will kick in, and there is a fairly short window from about 1-3pm where it will fish well. A good bet is to fish the Gallatin below Big Sky to start out and then work your way back upstream. Don't be afraid to throw some hoppers and beetles in the afternoon, and also be on the lookout for Baetis during the cloudy cool days. Have Upright Baetis #20, Radiation Baetis #18, Lightning Bugs #16, Pat's Rubberlegs #10 and CDC Pheasant Tail Jigs #16.
The runners on the Madison in the Park have been slowly showing up and we are seeing a slight increase in the numbers of fish moving up from Hebgen Lake. The weather that we are expecting this weekend is perfect for fishing this stretch of water and should trigger more fish to move up into this system. If you like swinging flies, try a Shakey Beeley, Blew on Blue, Full Dressed Red or Lucky Bucky. These patterns have been successful over the past week and have been go-to flies for us for years. Streamers should be effective, too, so try brown/yellow and black Prospectors, tan Super Buggers, or orange and claret Super Squirrels. If you'd rather nymph, Pat's Rubberlegs #8, Guide Dips #14-16, Baker's Hole Buggers #10, Hungarian Prince #6 and San Juans are what you'll want to carry with you.
The Firehole has been good and swinging soft hackles has been the best bet with White Miller Soft Hackles #16, Tungsten Pheasant Tail Soft Hackles #16 and Partridge & Orange #14. During the rainy cold days we have been seeing Baetis and Bucky's Upright Baetis or a Baetis Sparkle Dun #20 along with Baetis Soft Hackles in #20 is what you'll want to have.
Keep your eye on the flows for Lamar, Slough and Soda Butte as the rain moves in again. You can bet that the Lamar and Soda Butte will most likely become off color. Today and Tomorrow will probably offer the best window for fishing these two bodies of water. Slough will typically stay clear even with a hard rain. The Drake Mackerel emergences have been getting better and better over the last week and the Baetis will often come off around the same time. Don't count out terrestrials in the northeast corner and along with drakes and Baetis, make sure you have a few hoppers and never forget the Longhorn beetle!
September 12, 2019
The Madison below Quake continues to fish well, though the fishing has changed significantly in a week's time. Cool, rainy weather the last few days has slowed terrestrial activity to a crawl, and we've switched over to a variety of small nymphs for the majority of our fishing since the front moved in. Radiation Baetis in sizes 16-18, purple Perdigon Nymphs in size 16 and olive Soft Hackle Perdigones in size 16 have all caught plenty of trout this week along with brown size 16 $3 Dips, size 18 Half Pints and size 18 Micro Mayflies. There have been a few Baetis around in the afternoons as well, though you'll likely have to cover a fair bit of water to find a few risers here and there. Try a size 20 Baetis Sparkle Dun or Baetis Razor Mayfly if you do find fish working. The weather is supposed to warm back up for just a couple days this weekend, so don't put those hoppers away just yet, either.
The Firehole has started fishing quite well with the recent cool down. A few Baetis and White Millers have brought a handful of fish to the surface, though most folks are reporting that soft hackles have been the most effective method for catching numbers of fish. Try swinging White Miller Soft Hackles in size 16, Tungsten Pheasant Tail Soft Hackles in size 16 and Partridge & Orange in size 14 through the riffles and be prepared to catch quite a few fish. White Millers should become more active in a few days as the weather warms, so make sure to have a few size 16 White Miller Razor Caddis, as well as size 20 Baetis Razor Mayflies.
The Madison in the Park has started to produce a few early runners, and it seems like the cold weather has helped push a few more fish into the river. While we wouldn't say that numbers of fish are great just yet, the hardcore anglers are starting to catch them with some regularity, so it's worth poking around on the Madison to see if you can find a big brown or rainbow fresh in from Hebgen Lake. Try swinging Blew on Blues, Shakey Beeleys and Baker's Hole Soft Hackles along with Baker's Hole Buggers and Soft Hackle Streamers if you are seeking out a large fall-run fish.
The Lamar River and Soda Butte Creek have both seen significant increases in flow with this week's rains, so we'd recommend letting these two settle down for a few days before making the trek if you can. Slough Creek should continue to fish, though, so if you are heading there we'd take a few size 12 Drake Mackerel Sparkle Duns and size 22 Slough Creek Baetis Sparkle Duns, along with some size 10 Thunder Thighs Hoppers and Longhorn Beetles for when the weather warms back up in a few days.
Callibaetis activity has died off considerably on Hebgen Lake as the weather cooled, so most successful anglers have switched to subsurface methods to continue picking up fish. Try black or olive Woolly Buggers, Pine Squirrel Leeches, or chironomid patterns for the best chance of success over the next day or two.
September 5, 2019
For now the Madison River continues to fish well with hoppers, beetles and ants, though we suspect that this terrestrial bite will fade a bit with the cooler weather moving in. But with the weather change, be on the lookout for Baetis in the near future. Until this weather arrives, be armed with #10 Thunder Thighs hoppers in pink and yellow, Dave's Hoppers #14, Arrick's Para-Ant and Improved Killer Bees. If you're fishing the Madison early next week, make sure you have a few nymphs like Pat's Rubberlegs #8, $3 Dips #16-18, CDC Pheasant Tail Jig #14, Micro Mayflies #16-18 and Radiation Baetis #18. Also have a few Baetis dries #18-20 with you just in case.
As the Gallatin River continues on a steady drop the fishing has remained good. If you're heading to the park section of the Gallatin don't get there too early, let the river warm up a bit, have an extra cup of coffee or sleep in a little. You don't need to be on the upper Gallatin until 11:00am. Hoppers, beetles and ants have been working well here and should continues until the weather turns. If you need to get on the water early, head downstream towards Big Sky, where the Morning nymph bite has been very consistent. Lightning Bugs in silver and gold #16, red Rainbow Warriors #16, CDC Pheasant Tail Jig #14 and Pat's Rubberlegs #10 are what you will want to have with you.
The Callibaetis are still coming off on Hebgen Lake, but as with the Madison, the cool weather that is heading in starting tomorrow could really slow this hatch down. This doesn't mean that the fishing will shut off altogether, just that you may have to pursue these fish a little differently with smaller streamers and nymphs, especially in the Madison Arm where there are some fish starting to stage to run upstream for the fall.
Slough, Lamar and Soda Butte will really come into play now and we have seen a few Drake Mackerels over in the northeast corner of the park. Our guide Patrick Daigle was over in this area for a number of days and had good fishing both on Soda Butte and the second meadow of Slough creek. Drake Mackerel Sparkle Duns #14, Longhorn Beetles, Thunder Thighs hoppers in pink, CDC Pheasant Tail Jigs #14, black Zebra Midges #18-20 and make sure you have a few #22 Slough Creek Baetis with you. If the weather man is correct and it clouds up in this area we should see the Drakes pour off!
The Yellowstone River in the park above and below the falls is still a viable option, and as we continue the transition period between summer and fall hatches, be prepared with a few streamers and soft hackles. It's also very likely to see Baetis within the next few days on the Yellowstone so be prepared with some imitation of these in your fly box.
The Firehole and Madison Rivers in the park have still been seeing some high water temperatures as of late so you may want to hold off fishing these two bodies of water for a little while, but keep a close eye on these as the weather is changing and it could only be a matter of a few days for conditions to change.